Deaths have been reported following ingestion of naphthalene balls. A number of deaths have been reported following intentional ingestion of naphthalene-containing mothballs (ATSDR, 1990). Health effects from mothballs depend on the active ingredient and the type of exposure. The least number of taken mothballs was half a ball and the highest number was 20 naphthalene balls. As these spheres rise, they are carried downstream by the flow velocity. When naphthalene melts, other ingredients such as paraffin wax, camphor, etc., are added and mixed well. Development of severe methaemoglobinaemia and intravascular haemolysis is quite unusual after consumption of a single It is also highly flammable. A 15-year-old boy presented to emergency services with accidental naphthalene ball ingestion. When used according to label directions, no signifcant health effects are expected. It can affect how blood carries oxygen to the heart, brain, and other organs. Paradichlorobenzene acute ingestions are virtually always innocuous. Ingestion of naphthalene mothballs can cause gastrointestinal upset and less frequently, anemia, neurologic signs, and kidney or liver damage. An active ingredient in some mothballs is naphthalene. The cause of poisoning was intentional in 34 (65%) cases and accidental in 18 (35%) cases. Exposure to the substances Background: Naphthalene ingestion and skin or inhalational exposure (accidental or deliberate) is an under-recognized cause of a severe toxidrome in regions where it is commonly used (e.g., mothballs in households). 207, Favourite Industrial Estate, Masrani Lane, Kurla West, Mumbai - 400070, Dist.
It is best known as the main ingredient of traditional mothballs As an aromatic hydrocarbon, naphthalene's structure consists of a fused pair of benzene rings. The fatal dose for naphthalene in humans is unknown, but as little as one mothball can result in toxicity in children. In 1989 there were 2,300 reported ingestion of naphthalene ball by children under the age of 6 in United States alone . Clinically, patients present with acute onset of dark brown urine, watery diarrhea, and non-bloody bilious vomiting 48-96 hours after exposure. He had no history suggestive of congenital haemoglobin M disease. Serious poisoning in animals is reported to cause tremors and hepatic necrosis. 7. naphthalene and paradichlorobenzine. The hemolytic properties of naphthalene, of the naphthols and naphthoquinones were examined in vitro and in vivo (rabbits). Case Presentation. Naphthalene is a primary skin irritant and is acutely irritating to the eyes of humans (Sandmeyer, 1981). Indian J Hematol Blood Transfus. Some of the symptoms that may occur after exposure to large quantities of naphthalene are fatigue, loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhoea. Children and pets are also vulnerable to naphthalene poisoning. Naphthalene exposure is a common cause of toxicity in older children, but is rarely described The fatal dose for naphthalene in humans is unknown, but as little as one mothball can result in toxicity in children. Exposure to large amounts of naphthalene may damage or destroy some of your red blood cells. Kapoor R, Suresh P, Barki S, Mishra M, Garg MK. This article is for information only. 7. If swallowed, naphthalene can damage red blood cells, causing kidney damage and many other problems. naphthalene balls eaten by baby. Furthermore, skin irritation is common. Methods: This review is an update for the clinicians to understand the pharmacology, clinical features, laboratory evaluation, and treatment for naphthalene toxicity. Define naphthalene poisoning. Moth balls; Moth flakes; Camphor tar. Buckminsterfullerene is a type of fullerene with the formula C 60.It has a cage-like fused-ring structure (truncated icosahedron) made of twenty hexagons and twelve pentagons, and resembles a soccer ball.Each carbon atom has three bonds. BMJ Case Reports.
The effects of naphthalene poisoning are particularly severe in infants and young children. The ingestion of mothballs, which come as flakes, tablets, crystals, bars, and balls, can be appealing to dogs due to the odor that they emit and the curious nature of our pets. Naphthalene Balls are exteusively used for keeping products bacteria free Devika Hycare Products Kurla West, Mumbai No. Naphthalene poisoning (or mothball poisoning) is a form of poisoning that occurs when naphthalene is ingested. 2.7 Camphor and naphthalene (1) The container requirements of Section 2.1(2) do not apply to a device that contains only camphor or naphthalene in block, ball, disc, pellet or flake form for domestic use, if the device: a) in normal use, prevents removal or CoNLL17 Skipgram Terms - Free ebook download as Text File (.txt), PDF File (.pdf) or read book online for free. One hour after naphthalene ingestion, the boy developed profuse vomiting, abdominal pain and diarrhea. I suggest you to admit in a hospital and review your health completely. Poisoning from naphthalene destroys or changes red blood cells so they cannot carry oxygen. Naphthalene toxicity is associated with methemoglobinemia, hypotension, hemolytic anemia, and hyperbilirubinemia, as well as other hepatic, renal, and respiratory complications. This can cause organ damage. In extreme cases, a tube may be passed through the mouth into the lungs to prevent aspiration. The possibility of secondary exposure by routes other than those resulting from direct application should also be considered (e.g. (2,3) Haemolytic anaemia and methaemoglobinaemia from poisoning can pose a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge to clinicians because it is not commonly encountered. Abstract. Investigate any liver or kidney problems, or be suspicious if hemolytic anemia develops. Naphthalene (mothball) is a commonly used deodorizer in the Indian subcontinent, including Sri Lanka. We present a case of prolonged naphthalene -induced haemolysis and Abstract Background. Naphthalene poisoning occurs mainly in the paediatric age group and the substance is present in a 100% concentration in naphthalene balls. Severe poisoning can result in haemolytic anaemia. Other routes of exposure include inhalational and skin contact. acute and chronic toxicity to animals and humans, epidemiology, and mechanisms of toxicity were evaluated. Maternal ingestion of naphthalene-containing mothballs is an uncommon cause of perinatal toxicity. These are the symptoms of naphthalene ball poisoning. Following consumption he developed methaemoglobinaemia, massive intravascular haemolysis and acute kidney injury. Potassium iodide - NUTR, GRAS, < 0.01% - In table salt as source of dietary iodine - 184.1634; DS, REG, < 225 micrograms daily ingestion - Ingestion - Through accidental consumption or failing to wash your hands after handling moth-balls and then handling food. Most countries have replaced naphthalene with 1, 4-dichlorobenzene and mothballs have been banned. Maintain temperature at 88 C, and a stirring material shakes. Mumbai, Maharashtra Naphthalene is a white solid substance with a strong smell. In order to avoid wasteful duplication of effort, information from the following Dose-Response Information from Five Key Studies of Naphthalene Toxicity . Aliyu I, Ibrahim ZF. Naphthalene readily forms a vapour at room temperature and therefore, poses an inhalation hazard. In short, the answer is no, naphthalene moth balls are not safe. 9-6 Table 9-2. Acute intravascular hemolysis and methemoglobinemia following naphthalene ball poisoning. It is best known as the traditional, primary ingredient of moth balls. The estimated lethal dose of naphthalene is 5-15 g for adults and 2-3 g for children. When used according to label directions, no signifcant health effects are expected. Acute hemolysis may occur, especially in patients with G6PD deficiency. Those who are looking for an answer to the question Are moth balls harmful to cats and dogs? often ask the following questions: Watch for signs of eye, nose, throat and lung irritation, respiratory problems, vertigo, confusion, headache, nausea, vomiting and/or fatigue. Some symptoms of hemolytic anemia are fatigue, lack of appetite, restlessness, and pale skin. Naphthalene1 Structures2 Names and Identifiers. 3 Chemical and Physical Properties. 4 Spectral Information. 6 Chemical Vendors7 Drug and Medication Information8 Agrochemical Information. 9 Pharmacology and Biochemistry10 Use and Manufacturing. 11 Identification. More items parents, was admitted in the Hospital, 36 hours after ingestion of naphthalene mothball. Experimental studies in dogs confirmed the hemolytic action of naphthalene. Moth balls containing naphthalene are generally safe for use around adults and older children, if used correctly and in the right quantity. Naphthalene (mothball) is a commonly used deodorizer in the Indian subcontinent, including Sri Lanka. This can cause organ damage. Publication types Review MeSH terms Adult Aged "Ingestion of naphthalene mothballs can cause anemia, lethargy, vomiting, and sometimes kidney or liver damage." Abstract. Long-term exposure to mothball fumes can also harm pets and people. Conclusion Naphthalene ingestion can lead to severe intravascular hemolysis as well as methemoglobinemia. Since water treatment plants do not remove PBTs, the use of moth balls outside contributes to a poisoning of our drinking water. Cats are more sensitive to their toxic effects, but dogs are more likely to ingest mothballs due to their curious nature. non-intended inhalation of sprays, non-intended ingestion of lip products, etc.). Naphthalene occurs as transparent prismatic plates also available as white scales, powder balls, or cakes with a characteristic mothball or strong coal tar and aromatic odour. DO NOT use it to treat or manage an actual poison exposure. The most characteristic sign of naphthalene toxicity is acute intravascular haemolysis, Mothballs consist either of naphthalene or paradichlorobenzene, the toxicities of which are very different. MOTHBALL EXPOSURE HEALTH EFFECTS . Abstract.
Ingestion of naphthalene-containing products may potentially produce methemoglobinemia or hemolysis. Naphthalene and paradichlorobenzene are two ingredients used in mothballs. Look for convulsions within an hour of when mothballs are ingested. Though it is freely available around this country, poisoning has never been reported in the literature. Naphthalene is a widely used industrial and household chemical in the form of Naphthalene ball poisoning: a rare cause of acquired methaemoglobinaemia. The liquefied mass is fed into ball press aluminum molds. The method is simple and consists of the release of buoyant spheres resembling like ping pong balls from the channel floor. Moth balls contain a highly toxic substance called naphthalene. The substance is banned due to its toxicity to humans, especially children, and its carcinogenic (cancer causing) properties. Ingestion of naphthalene-containing mothballs is known to cause oxidative hemolysis in children with glucose-6-phosphate Sahu KK, Dhibar DP, Varma SC: Naphthalene ball poisoning: a rare cause of acquired methaemoglobinaemia. Ingestion - Through accidental consumption or failing to wash your hands after handling moth-balls and then handling food. Naphthalene has also been detected in tobacco smoke.Acute (shortterm) exposure of humans to naphthalene by inhalation, ingestion, and dermal contact is associated with hemolytic anemia, damage to the liver, and neurological damage. Some of the common signs and symptoms of an acute inhalation exposure to naphthalene include headache, confusion, nausea, vomiting and profuse perspiration [1, 3]. Deaths have been reported the following ingestion of naphthalene balls., Naphthalene is erratically absorbed when ingested in the pediatric population. Other treatments may include: Activated charcoal to prevent the poison from absorbing in the digestive system. For last 7 days the boy used to play with naphthalene mothball which were kept for household use and inquisitively he ingested part of a naphthalene ball. Naphthalene was introduced in 1841 by Rossbach as an antiseptic to counteract typhoid fever. 2014;30(1):3179. Deaths have been reported the following ingestion of naphthalene balls. As stated previously, naphthalene does not break down in the environment; moth balls used outside wear away to seep right into the ground water. We would like to show you a description here but the site wont allow us. An active ingredient in some mothballs is naphthalene.If swallowed, naphthalene can damage red blood cells, causing kidney damage and many other problems. It is a black solid that dissolves in hydrocarbon solvents to produce a violet solution. Children with medical conditions may also develop kidney damage, anaemia, and jaundice. Naphthalene poisoning is a rare form of toxicity that may occur after ingestion, inhalation, or dermal exposure to naphthalene-containing compounds such as mothballs. Epidemiology Naphthalene balls are commonly used in Indian households as moth repellants or toilet deodorant blocks. Particular consideration shall be given to any possible impacts on exposure due to particle sizes. chevrolet performance ls7 crate engine 19329246; isaiah wong draft projection; owl carousel slider multiple items; head radar rachel lens; PREZENTACJA;
Mothballs come in cakes, scales, powder, balls, cubes, spheres, and flakes and may contain the insecticides naphthalene, paradi-chlorobenzene (PDB), or occasionally camphor. Development of severe methaemoglobinaemia and Cataracts have also been reported in workers acutely exposed to naphthalene by inhalation and ingestion. The clinical presentations are given in Figure 1. We are reporting this case primarily to show that other home products besides moth balls and flakes contain naphthalene and are thus potentially poisonous, and secondly to reemphasize the hemolytic toxicity of naphthalene. They can include: Abdominal painNausea and vomitingDiarrheaThe person may also have a fever. Additionally, its best to keep the balls in a netted bag or a box instead of placing directly on your clothing to help protect your family from accidental exposure. Chronic inhalation has also caused hemolytic anemia. Stomach problems may not occur until 2 days after coming in contact with the poison. Click to see full answer Similarly one may ask, can naphthalene balls kill humans? First, feed the naphthalene flakes into a jacketed pot. It can affect how blood carries oxygen to the heart, brain, and other organs. Ethanol (also called ethyl alcohol, grain alcohol, drinking alcohol, or simply alcohol) is an organic chemical compound.It is a simple alcohol with the chemical formula C 2 H 6 O. The resultant pigment nephropathy may also lead to Naphthalene Toxicity: Methemoglobinemia and Acute Intravascular Hemolysis Abstract. Naphthalene poisoning is a rare form of toxicity that may occur after ingestion, inhalation, or dermal Introduction. The skin may become pale or yellow-coloured. Naphthalene balls are also often used in urinals or bathrooms to repel cockroaches and other pests. Naphthalene is a commercially important aromatic hydrocarbon. Illness Associated with Exposure to Naphthalene in Mothballs -- Indiana In April 1982, the Clark County Health Department in Jeffersonville, Indiana, received a telephone call from a 26-year-old woman whose friends were becoming ill with symptoms of headache, nausea, and vomiting while visiting her apartment. An additional mode may be intentional ingestion, as suicide attempts with mothballs have been reported  . Newborn babies are particularly at risk of damaging their blood cells if they are exposed to naphthalene. The other major industry to use enzymes is food, feed, and beverages. It is sparingly soluble in water but soluble in methanol/ethanol and very soluble in ether. REPORT OF CASE R. A. These have several detrimental qualities including a high level of flammability. It can also cause nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, seizures and coma. Moreover, the naphthalene moth balls are highly carcinogenic and flammable. In 4 cases of fulminating hemolytic anemia in young children observed during a period of two years the ingestion of moth balls consisting of pure naphthalene (C10H8) was the sole apparent etiologic factor. Due to concern for naphthalenes flammability and toxicity, most modern mothballs now contain PDB instead. Following ingestion, these proteins form pores in the insect midgut epithelial cells, resulting in cell lysis and death by removing small balls of fibers that form on the cloth during wearing and washing. - and -naphthol and - and -naphthoquinone were found in the urine of a child suffering from severe hemolytic anemia due to ingestion of naphthalene moth balls. Following consumption he developed methaemoglobinaemia, massive intravascular haemolysis and acute kidney injury. email@example.com | +48 602 618 207 | +48 061 8 973 538 talal al hammad wealth; garrett baxter wife nicole baxter.
Modern PDB mothballs are less toxic but can still cause illness, especially when ingested. Health effects from mothballs depend on the active ingredient and the type of exposure. (268751), admitted Jan. 2, 1954, was a 2-year-old white boy of Puerto Rican A 19-year-old woman ingested 12 mothballs, and presented two days later with haemolysis and methaemoglobinaemia. Although the FDA has determined moth balls to be safe for general use, the inhalation of a moth ball or its fumes can cause serious health problems. If swallowed, naphthalene can damage red blood cells, causing kidney damage and many other problems. (2'3) Haemolytic anaemia and methaemoglobinaemia from poisoning can pose a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge to clinicians because it is not commonly encountered. Poisoning most commonly occurs when cats or dogs ingest mothballs. Older mothballs most commonly contain naphthalene. This article focuses on the management of mothball ingestion with reference to these major ingredients. result in toxicity in children.
He had no history suggestive of congenital haemoglobin M disease. Agitation, lethargy, and seizures may occur with naphthalene ingestion. use for Bathroom, Napthalene Balls repelling or killing insects such as moths and silverfish. Controls bad order in toilets and wash rooms. Naphthalene Balls are exteusively used for keeping products bacteria free. They can also be used around sinks & wash basins to keep the foul smell away. As a result, the condition has limit 2016;2016:bcr2016215102. naphthalene poisoning synonyms, naphthalene poisoning pronunciation, naphthalene poisoning translation, English dictionary definition of naphthalene poisoning. MOTHBALL EXPOSURE HEALTH EFFECTS . 8. Poisoning from naphthalene destroys or changes red blood cells so they cannot carry oxygen. Conclusion. Naphthalene is a white solid substance with a strong smell. Airway and breathing support, including oxygen. DO NOT use it to treat or manage an actual poison exposure. Naphthalene, also known as naphthalin, is a crystalline, aromatic, white, solid hydrocarbon (PAH: Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon) with formula C10H8 and the structure of two fused benzene rings. Answer (1 of 6): Napthalene balls have been used for a long time to dispel moths. She was treated with red blood cell transfusions, intravenous FAQ. We present a case of prolonged naphthalene-induced haemolysis and This article is for information only. The Effects of Inhaling Moth Balls. Mothball toxicity Abstract Accidental mothball ingestion is very common in children. is that naphthalene is a white crystalline hydrocarbon manufactured from coal tar; used in mothballs while mothball is a small ball of chemical pesticide and deodorant placed in or around clothing and other articles susceptible to damage from mold or moth larvae in order to protect them from this damage; mothballs have
Deaths have been reported following ingestion of naphthalene balls. Ingestion, either accidental or by deliberate self-harm, can occur due to its abundance as well as its candy-resembling appearance. Yes, sniffing naphthalene balls is dangerous to health. When napthalene gas is smelled, the body breaks it down into other chemicals that react with cells in our body and also damage several tissues. Moreover, if clothing stored in napthalene balls are worn as such without washing them, than it may even cause anaemia. A 15-year-old boy presented to emergency services with accidental naphthalene ball ingestion. It can also cause nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, seizures and coma. result in toxicity in children. Although naphthalene was widely used industrially, only nine cases of poisoning have been reported since 1947 as of 1956, suggesting underdiagnosis of the condition. CBIC exempts BCD and IGST on goods imported for the purpose of AFC Women's Asian Cup India, 2022; Provides that all goods such as Kelme Referee kits, Molten official match balls, b CBIC extends exemption on COVID-19 vaccines from Basic Custom duty (BCD) from December 31, 2021 to June 30, 2022; Amends notification No. Naphthalene is an organic compound with formula C 10 H 8.It is the simplest polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, and is a white crystalline solid with a characteristic odor that is detectable at concentrations as low as 0.08 ppm by mass. Naphthalene balls can also work as a deodorant in urinals and help in neutralising the strong urine smell. Ingestional naphthalene mothball poisoning leading to prolonged haemolysis and methaemoglobinaemia can present with diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. Naphthalene is an aromatic hydrocarbon that may be found in mothballs, deodorizers, or insecticides [ 1, 2 ]. Through accidental ingestion of mothballs, especially in pediatric age group children, is known and unintentional exposure to naphthalene in glucose-6 phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficient people is known to cause hemolysis, but use of naphthalene mothballs as a suicidal agent is not described much in literature. It can affect how blood carries oxygen to the heart, brain, and other organs. Are naphthalene balls safe? But, in spite of its many uses, the fumes from naphthalene balls are quite harmful. Naphthalene is an aromatic hydrocarbon that is insoluble in water and poisoning almost universally occurs due to accidental ingestion of mothballs that are used as insect repellents . People who have recently eaten many mothballs containing naphthalene may be forced to vomit. It can also cause nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, seizures and coma. The ingestion of mothballs, which come as flakes, tablets, crystals, bars, and balls, can be appealing to dogs due to the odor that they emit and the curious nature of our pets. This condition is called hemolytic anemia. Toddlers may mistake naphthalene balls for candy and may present with severe hemolysis .Though most common route for exposure is by ingestion, several cases of toxicity have resulted by inhalation and dermal exposure too .